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    sonicbomb.com :: View topic - Info: Nuclear tests at Novaya Zemlya, 1961-1962

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    Post new topic Reply to topic  sonicbomb.com Forum Index » Russia's Nuclear Weapons Program
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    Baikal
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    PostPosted: Thu Dec 23, 2010 1:26 am Reply with quote

    In 1961, the soviet government determined finishes a moratorium of 33 months that began on november 3, 1958. In Novaya Zemlya, was planned a series of nuclear test in atmospheric and underwater ambient. The program was aimed tests powerful thermonuclear warheads (MinSredMash) and exercises for the Armed Forces (Ministry of Defence).
    In all the Commission which superviced the program, the first deputy chairman was Vice-Admiral P. F. Fomin. Direct test on the ground in this period was headed by Captain V. V. Rakhmanov. His closest aides have been members of previous trials, O. G. Kasimov, and V. P. Kovalev.

    For each exercise the first detonation would be at a higher elevation, while in the second will be reduced. This made it possible to compare the effectiveness of the impact of the explosions at different heights on the same objects.
    It was definitely intended not only to test the weapons, but also as a show of force, given the growing tensions between the USSR and the U.S.

    The first test, Vozduj, was conducted on september 10, 1961. A Tu-95 took off from the Olenya airfield in Kola Peninsula (the same where took off the Tu-95V which dropped the Tsar bomba) with a thermonuclear bomb on board. The aircraft dropped the bomb in D-2 batlefield, Mityushika bay, Sukhoy Nos peninsula, north island of Novaya Zemlya. The bomb exploded in an altitude of 2000 m, with a yield of 2700 kt. The high altitude of the explosion allowed that 2 hours later could access the site.

    At the same time, the Ministry of Defence started his program of exercices. Was established a danger zone in Barents and Kara sea. It warned all owners of ships, boats and planes Soviets and foreigners shall not be liable if they violate the border of the zone of danger and suffer any damage (Pravda, August 1961).

    The same day of “Vozduj”, a test was conducted in Chyornaya bay, whose purpose was to study of the damaging impact on the engineering equipment line of defense and military equipment. Codename Volga. The rocket, a R-11M, was launched from Rogachevo (NZ) and exploded in an altitude of 390 m in the middle of the battlefield, with a yield of 12 kt, slightly above the expected. The test was successful in all respects, demonstrating the effectiveness of tactical nuclear weapons of the Army.

    On september 12, is conducted a test of strategic rockets. Codename Roza, was conducted under the command of Colonel General Victor Anisimovich Bolyatko. A R-12 with a “product 49” warhead (a thermonuclear device, derived from the RDS-37) started in Vorkuta, in the north of Ural mountains. 20 min. before the launch, the communication between the start point with the base in NZ was broken, that caused quite agitation. Finally, the communication was restored and the rocket launched, exploding in Mityushika bay in an altitude of 1190 m and a yield of 1150 kt. The rocket come to the point with a important deviation.

    On september 13 is conducted the second test of tactical weapons (test n°95). A rocket with a warhead started in NZ and exploded in Chyornaya bay, altitude of 250 m over water and yield of 6 kt. Because of the low altitude the area was significantly contaminated (was realized a moratorium). Conducted by the Institute of Applied Geophysics, in September 1977 is realized an inspection of the radiation situation in the eastern coast of the Chyornaya bay, where the test is realized, identifying the dose of radiation almost equal to background values.

    September 14, 1961 (test n°98 ). A rocket (launched from Kola Peninsula or maybe Salekhard) exploded in Mityushika bay, 1700 m over the ground with a yield of 1200 kt.

    September 16, 1961, test name Roza. An R-12 rocket with a “49” warhead was launched from Vorkuta. Was burst with a yield of 830 kt.

    Then there was a break of ten days because climate. Could not fly over the test sites during this period.

    October 8, 1961 (test n°116). A KSR-2 cruise missile launched from an aircraft with a warhead was tested in Chyornaya bay. The device burst on an altitude of 1450 m and with 15 kt of yield. This was the first soviet test with a cruise missile and the first in Chyornaya bay after the moratorium.

    October 20, 1961, test name Raduga. In Mityushika bay, a K-102 submarine launched an R-13 rocket with a thermonuclear warhead (a RDS-37 variant). When the ships came to the specificated point in Barents Sea they couldn’t clarify their position because the cloudiness and the snowfall. Previous the test, a rocket without nuclear warhead was launched to the test point, with a strong deviation. The test was conducted despite bad weather. The rocket was launched with a minor deviation than the first, and exploded in an altitude of 530 m, with a yield of 1450 kt.

    Later, was conducted a second naval experiment. Codename Korall, the experiment had as objective to study the effectiveness of the nuclear torpedo T-5 and the use of a new nuclear warhead system, named ASBZO. This was an autonomous section of warhead, non electrically connected with the torpedo. Testing took place in Chyornaya bay. Torpedoes were launched from a B-130 submarine, commanded by Captain Rank 3 N. A. Shumkov. The shooting took place in the following sequence:
    - Oct. 21, 1961: Two torpedoes (one with ASBZO), with conventional explosives.
    - Oct. 23: Torpedo with ASBZO and nuclear warhead, was burst in a depth of 25 m with a yield of 4,8 kt.
    - Oct. 26:Torpedo with ASBZO and conventional explosives.
    - Oct. 27: Torpedo with ASBZO and nuclear warhead. Was burst on water surface (1 m) with a yield of 16 kt.
    The shooting distance of both nuclear torpedoes was 12,5 km.


    The tests was continued in 1962.

    August 22, 1962. Test name Shkval. This was a test of the Aviation Navy. The airmen had to operate in a combat situation. In the Kara Sea, were equipped the target to the test, but the drift ice destroyed it, and were made new target. A Tu-16K launched a cruise missile (KSR-2 or KSR-3?) with a nuclear warhead. The bomb burst 60 m over the water, with a yield of 6 kt. According to the results of "Shkval" experiment, it became clear that the Soviet navy had a formidable weapon against aircraft carriers. With regard to air missiles and other weapons anti-ship which had the same nuclear charge, this experiment confirmed the reliability of other ammunition with this charge.

    September 8, 1962, Operation Tyulpan. This was a very difficult test. A long raches R-14 rocket with a thermonuclear warhead was lauched from Chita, Siberia, towards Mityushika bay. Never before a rocket with a nuclear warhead had flown over Russia that distance. Before the launch, the communication between the start point with the base in NZ was broken because the strong interference in the atmosphere. Was took the decision, although, continue the test. Then was informed that the rocket came to the target, exploding the bomb with a yield of 1900 kt. The test was successfully. This occurred before the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    Later, a new rocket with a thermonuclear warhead was launched from Chita. Date I didn't find. Link Arrow

    September 15 and September 16, 1962 (tests n° 165 and 166). Those were Air force exercices with thermonuclear weapons. The bombs were dropped by Tu-16 bombers, with yield of 3100 and 3250 kt respectively.

    Sources:
    http://wsyachina.narod.ru/history/testing_ground_25.html

    http://flot.com/history/events/nucleararchipelago.htm

    http://www.proatom.ru/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=2312

    Excuse all mistakes.
    sonicbomb
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    PostPosted: Fri Apr 01, 2011 8:13 pm Reply with quote

    Does anyone have anymore information about the ASBZO system used during Operation Korall? If it's an autonomous guidance system, then how can it be "non electrically connected with the torpedo", this makes no sense, or is it just a an issue with the translation? Or is it an autonomous ignition system?


    I found a snippet here

    "VNIIA together with Gidropribor "managed to create an autonomous special combat Charger Office (ASBZO), suitable for use with all pryamoiduschimi torpedoes 533mm caliber. This immediately simplifies operation torpedo nuclear weapons in the navies and increased its reliability."
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    Baikal
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    PostPosted: Fri Apr 01, 2011 11:40 pm Reply with quote

    Thank for the observation. As I know, the ASBZO, автономного специального боевого зарядного отделения (some as "autonomous special warhead section") was not a guidance system. I'm not sure what is exactly the ASBZO. I'm sorry for make this confusion, but definitely was not a guidance system.
    Here there is information about torpedoes T-5 and T-15 (in Russian):
    http://www.iss.niiit.ru/ksenia/YI_t1/ch1_6.htm
    The text talk about ASBZO. My understanding on Russian language is very limited, I'm sorry, and I did not find clear information.
    sonicbomb
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    PostPosted: Sat Apr 02, 2011 12:59 am Reply with quote

    I translated and re-read the page listed in the first post. From what I can understand, ASBZO was a project to improve the independence of the of the support systems (fuzing, detonators etc..) for the physics package. Thus requiring less human intervention meaning the weapon had a greater operation readiness. In fact the article mentions storing the massive T-15 in the tubes protecting it against mishaps aboard the boat, fire for instance. ASBZO seems to cover not just the engineering but the processes and procedures surrounding the deployment and handling of the weapon.


    I also found some interesting info about the T-15, and how it was designed for use against US Naval bases or coastal cities, destroying them with a massive radioactive tsunami. In fact this page talks about using a torpedo to deliver a Tzar Bomb size warhead.
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    Baikal
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    PostPosted: Sat Apr 02, 2011 1:55 pm Reply with quote

    Thank you very much
    sonicbomb
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    PostPosted: Tue Apr 05, 2011 9:44 am Reply with quote

    Another article on the T-5
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    benson0729
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    PostPosted: Fri May 11, 2012 3:03 am Reply with quote

    Its been awhile sorry for being gone for like 8 months.
    but this year i have been extremly busy and now i finally got time for gaming agian..
    for the rest of the year atleast. its Vicodin. lol remember me minty? how you been?
    do i have to re apply and ect? let me know man thanks.. good to be back on the site. i missed you guys!
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